Agrochemicals or agrichemicals, is a common name given to is any substance that humans use to help in the management of an agricultural ecosystem, to aid plants and crops growth and safety. Agrochemicals were manufactured to protect agricultural crops from pests and for augmenting crop yields. Agrochemicals include fertilizers, liming and acidifying agents (which are designed to change the pH), soil conditioners, pesticides, and chemicals used in the raising of livestock such as antibiotics and hormones. 

The most commonly used fertilizers are inorganic compounds of nitrogen (N). Under conditions where agricultural plants have access to sufficient water, their productivity is most often constrained by the supply of available forms of nitrogen, especially nitrate (NO3), and sometimes ammonium (NH4+). Farmers commonly increase the availability of these inorganic forms of nitrogen by applying suitable fertilizers, such as urea or ammonium nitrate. The rate of fertilization in intensive agricultural systems is commonly several hundred pounds of nitrogen per acre per year. 

Phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) are other commonly applied nutrients in agriculture. Most phosphorus fertilizers are manufactured from rock phosphate, and are known as superphosphate and triple-superphosphate.








Fertilizer, natural or artificial substance containing the chemical elements that improve growth and productiveness of plants. Fertilizers enhance the natural fertility of the soil or replace the chemical elements taken from the soil by previous crops.

The use of manure and composts as fertilizers is probably almost as old as agriculture. Modern chemical fertilizers include one or more of the three elements that are most important in plant nutrition: nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. Of secondary importance are the elements sulfur, magnesium and calcium.

Fertilizers replace the nutrients that crops remove from the soil. Without the addition of fertilizers, crop yields and agricultural productivity would be significantly reduced. That’s why mineral fertilizers are used to supplement the soil’s nutrient stocks with minerals that can be quickly absorbed and used by crops. 






Calcium Nitrate

Potassium Nitrate

Sodium Nitrate

Calcium Ammonium Nitrate

Ammonium Nitrate


Specification of Urea 46% Granular

Trisodium Phosphate

Disodium Phosphate

Monoammonium Phosphate

Diammonium Phosphate

Monocalcium Phosphate

Potassium Iodide

Potassium Fluborate

Potassium Acetate

Potassium Phosphate

Potassium Chloride

Zinc Sulfate

Magnesium Sulfate

Ammonium Sulfate

Potassium Sulfate

Manganese Sulfate

Manganese Carbonate

Magnesium Carbonate

Calcium Carbonate 

Potassium Carbonate

Sodium Carbonate

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Around 78% of the Earth’s atmosphere is made up of nitrogen gas or N2  a molecule made of two nitrogen atoms glued together by a stable, triple bond.  

Though it makes up a large portion of the air we breathe, most living organisms can’t access it in this form. Atmospheric nitrogen must go through a natural process called nitrogen fixation to transform before it can be used for plant nutrition 

In both plants and humans, nitrogen is used to make amino acids  which make the proteins that construct cells  and is one of the building blocks for DNA. It is also essential for plant growth because it is a major component of chlorophyll, the compound by which plants use sunlight energy to produce sugars from water and carbon dioxide (photosynthesis). 

In today’s intensive agricultural systems, synthetic nitrogen fertilizer has become increasingly crucial.


Phosphorus (P) is one of the key essential elements in modern agriculture. Fertilization of crops comprises the largest proportion of P used in agriculture. Phosphorous use has become increasingly prevalent during recent decades due to its depletion in soils used for crop and hay production.

Phosphorus has many important functions in plants, the primary one being the storage and transfer of energy through the plant. Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) are high-energy phosphate compounds that control most processes in plants including photosynthesis, respiration, protein and nucleic acid synthesis, and nutrient transport through the plant’s cells.


Potassium is associated with the movement of water, nutrients and carbohydrates in plant tissue. It’s involved with enzyme activation within the plant, which affects protein, starch and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production. The production of ATP can regulate the rate of photosynthesis.

Potassium also helps regulate the opening and closing of the stomata, which regulates the exchange of water vapor, oxygen and carbon dioxide. If K is deficient or not supplied in adequate amounts, it stunts plant growth and reduces yield.


Sulfuric acid is by far the largest single product of the chemical industry. The chamber process for its preparation on the scale required by the Leblanc process might be regarded as the most important long-term contribution of the latter. Sulphate-containing fertilizers provide most of the fertilizer S applied to soils. These materials have the advantages of supplying S primarily as a component of multi-nutrient fertilizers in a form, SO4-2, that is immediately available for plant uptake. The most readily available and popular sources are ammonium sulphate (AS), single superphosphate (SSP), potassium sulphate, and potassium and magnesium sulphate.


Carbonic acid is an acid which not only contributes to the ionization of the minerals and trace elements being essential for the plants, but at the same time, its elements and molecules are needed by the plants for the metabolism.


Herbicide, an agent, usually chemical, for killing or inhibiting the growth of unwanted plants, such as residential or agricultural weeds and invasive species.  A great advantage of chemical herbicides over mechanical weed control is the ease of application, which often saves on the cost of labor. Most herbicides are considered nontoxic to animals and humans, but they can cause substantial mortality of nontarget plants and the insects that depend on them, especially when applied aerially.

Chlorophenoxy Acid


2,4 – Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid

2,4,5 – Trichlorophenoxyacetic acid

MCPA (2-Methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid)

Silvex [2-(2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxy)-propionic acid]







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Chlorophenoxy acid 

Chlorophenoxy acid herbicides cause toxicity to plants by mimicking their natural hormone-like auxins, and thereby causing lethal growth abnormalities. These herbicides are selective for broad-leaved or angiosperm plants, and are tolerated by monocots and conifers at the spray rates normally used. These chemicals are moderately persistent in the environment, with a half-life in soil typically measured in weeks, and a persistence of a year or so.


Over the past 50 years, triazines have made a great impact on agriculture and world hunger by assisting in the development of new farming methods, providing greater farming and land use capabilities, and increasing crop yields. Triazine herbicides are mostly used in corn agriculture, and sometimes as soil sterilants. These chemicals are not very persistent in surface soils, but they are mobile and can cause a contamination of groundwater

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